Fissured or WrinkledFissured bark forms long narrow divisions causing separations. Wrinkled bark generally has smooth folded appearance that may be warty.
Upright-bushyWhen a plant has an upright habit with intricate branching (bushy) and may have multiple stems.
This arid shrub has an upright branched habit with a swollen base and the strap-like pendant leaves form tufts at the end of the branches. The cream-white saucer-shaped flowers appear in terminal feathery heads during spring.
Beaucarnea recurvata is naturally found in semi-arid environments from southern North America to Guatemala growing in well-drained sandy to stony loams with reliable moisture. It perfers and open sunny position and is drought tollerant but is frost tender.
The Pony Tail Palm is an unusual sparsely branched shrub that is commonly grown as a potted plant for both indoors and outdoors. It is also grown in parks and gardens tolerating arid conditions. It establishes in 4 to 7 years forming a swollen base as it matures and is long lived. It has a low water requirement once established. (Scale: 1-drop from 3)
Beaucarnea (bo-KAR-nee-a) recurvata (rek-yoor-VAIT-a) syn.Nolina tuberculata
This family occurs in the tropics, sub-tropics and semi-arid areas.
The leaves are fibrous and fleshy growing from a rhizomatous base as a tuft or on the ends of a woody stem.
The bisexual flowers are normally arranged in a raceme or panicle with six perianth segments in a whorl and are fused.
The flower has six stamens and the ovary is superior or inferior and has three carpels that contain three chambers.
The style is unbranched and the ovary chamber has one to many ovules.
The fruit may be a capsule or berry and contains one to many seeds that have a fleshy endosperm.
Some species are used for food, alcoholic drink, commercial fibres and for ornamental uses in domestic gardens.
This plant tolerates between USDA zones 9a to 12a and grows to 8 m (25 ft)
Fahrenheit 20º to 55º F
These temperatures represent the lowest average.
Celsius -6.6º to 12.7º C
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SimpleThe leaf that is not divided.
LinearMargins are parallel and length is ten times its breadth.
RosetteA cluster radiating from a common source.
Recurved - RevoluteA leaf margin that is curved or bending backwards with rolled edges.
CrateriformA saucer shaped hollow.
PanicleBranched with large loose clusters.
The tiny creamy-white crateriform flowers are 6-tepalled and are arranged in a large terminal panicle that appears during late spring. The flowers only develop on mature plants that are around 10 years old.
CapsuleA dried dehiscent fruit, with an enclosing membrane normally containing may seeds."
The Pony Tail Palm is an unusual sparsely branched shrub that is commonly grown as a potted plant for both indoors and outdoors. It is also grown in parks and gardens tolerating arid conditions. It establishes in 4 to 7 years forming a swollen base as it matures and is long lived.
As a potted plant it requires a minimal temperature of 12.7º C (55º F) in a brightly lit to sunny position. They grow well in a dry atmosphere as in a centrally heated building.
When watering allow the pot to dry before watering again and avoid over watering, as it will cause rot. Misting the foliage is unnecessary and repot during spring. The potting mix should be loam based and sharply drained.
Sow fresh seeds during spring and maintain a temperature of 18º to 21º C (64º to 75º F).Divide offsets during spring and they may be difficult to grow on.
Propagation by Seed (General)
In order for a seed to germinate it must fulfil three conditions.
1. The embryo must be alive (a viable seed).
2. The seed must have no dormancy-inducing physiological, physical or chemical barrier to germination; also the seed must be nondormant.
3. The seed must have the appropriate environmental requirements, water, temperature and oxygen.
The interaction between these requirements and dormancy is complex and may lead to different environmental requirements that avoid the dormancy of a seed.
Sowing Seeds in Containers
There are two general methods for germinating seeds.
Sow seeds in a flat or germinating bed, through which seedlings are pricked-out then, transplanted into another flat with wider spacing or directly to an individual pot.
2. Sowing seeds by placing them in to flats with the appropriate spacing or into individual pots.
This method is normally carried out with medium to large seeds such as woody plants and plants that are difficult to transplant.
Seedling production normally occurs in a greenhouse / glasshouse, cold frames and on hot beds.
Method of Seed Sowing
Fine seed is sown in pots or flats that are no deeper than 70 to 80 mm. using a sterilised well-drained media (soil). Fill the container to 20 mm from the top and sprinkle sieved peat to 3 mm depth.
Press the media down level and firm with a piece of timber and then thoroughly moisten.
Mix the fine seed with washed sand and then sow thinly on the surface. These may be lightly covered with sand.
Larger seeds may be covered with media or a hole is dibbled and the seed is placed in the media.
For watering you may either mist the containers from above or place the container in tepid water and allow the water to raise through the pot to the surface of the media, then drain away and do not fill to the top of the container.
Place a piece of glass over the pot and store in a protected warm environment (glasshouse).
Seeds germinate best in darkness so shade the containers if in direct sunlight.
After the seedlings have sprouted remove the glass and ease the seedlings into direct light.
When the seedlings are large enough prick them out and transplant into larger containers then place them in a shade house to harden off.
Many seeds have different methods of seed preparation for germination such as nicking or cutting the seed coat to allow water penetration, also placing seeds in hot water and allowing it to cool off.
This is particularly important as it is softening the seed coat.
This is a lateral shoot that forms from at the base of the mother plant. Often referred to in bulbs as bulblets or lateral branching in monocotyledons and appear as thickened stems and are removed close to the main stem. These natural methods are slow but microporpagation in aseptic culture has greatly enhanced production.
Two-spotted Mite, Red Spider Mite
Description of the Pest
Also known as the red spider mite. Females are pale green or yellowish, depending on the host plant, and have two dark lateral markings; the mite becomes red in winter, retaining their dark markings. Nymphs are six-legged, with another pair of legs appearing as the mite matures. Males are smaller and narrower. Fully-grown adults are just visible to the naked eye. Two-spotted mites spread by crawling between nearby plants or movement of dead leaves.
Appearance and Distribution of the Pest
Found world-wide; an introduced pest in Australia. They congregate in protected places, such as under bark and at the base of trees, during winter. During spring, they become green in colour, and migrate back into the leaves. During heavy infestations, the leaves may be covered in visible webs, which they spin as they feed. Leaves may eventually wither and fall. Mites can spread via the movement of dead leaves, or in webs that have become attached to birds or large insects. They initially appear on the undersides of leaves.
Spruce Spider Mite (Oligonychus ununguis) is a tiny greenish black adult which lays eggs on twigs where they overwinter. The pale green young spiders suck the sap turning the leaves yellow to brown. Heavy infestations form webbing and the pest is found on Abies and Juniperus species.
Banana spider mite (Tetranychus lambi) is a major widespread pest of bananas. It differs from two spotted mite by not producing copious amount of webbing. It is highly active during the dry spring to summer period and with the onset of the wet season mite numbers are reduced. The warm dry conditions that are created under plastic bunch covers is ideal for building up banana spider mite numbers.
Damage is normally confined to the underside of leaves appearing as rusty patches that coalesce along the leaf veins eventually turning the whole leaf brown-grey before it collapses. Fruit is damaged, close to the bunch stalk causing the area to become dull red purple-black, which in turn becomes dry then cracks.
Control methods include careful water management during dry periods, and the reduction of dust from roadways. Regular desuckering and leaf trimming of plants will assist with a good coverage when spraying miticides.
Mites have a gradual metamorphosis, with several nymphal stages. Each female lays up to 100 eggs that hatch in 7-14 days, with several generations appearing throughout the year. Females may become inactive during cold weather.
Period of Activity
The Two-spotted mite is most active in hot dry conditions. Under optimum conditions, the population can double every four days. It produces large quantities of webbing for over-wintering nests. Many plants are only susceptible to this insect when cultivated under glass.
Adults and nymphs lacerated the undersides of the leaves with there rasping mouth parts, although infestations on both surfaces are not uncommon. Infestations cause leaf mottling leaf fall; premature leaf loss causes loss of vigour and reduces the quality and quantity of future crops. Repeated infestations, year after year, may weaken root growth and kill herbaceous plants.
A wide range of plants are attacked by the Red Spider Mite including annuals, fruit trees and vegetables, ornamental shrubs and trees.
Many plant species are more susceptible to Red Spider Mite when they are cultivated under glass.
Other species of mite that are mentioned below have simular characteristics.
Calluna, Rose, Tropaeolum and Viola and species are infested with the Red Spider Mite (Tetranychus telarius) commonly in greenhouse situations.
Musa species are attacked by two spotted mite and banana spider mite damaging foliage and fruit.
Juglans species can be infested with up to four types of mites including red spider.
Heavy rain or irrigation can reduce numbers; some plants may benefit from replanting in cooler locations. Generally, however, infested material should be completely removed and destroyed.
Preventative measures such as removing weeds or mulching around trees or shrubs or scrubbing the loose bark of susceptible trees during winter helps reduce numbers. During spring sticky bands can be wrapped around trunks close to the ground to trap the mites.
Natural predators include lacewings, ladybirds and thrips help keep the numbers down. Insecticide-resistant predatory mites (Typhlodromus occidenyalis) are also available commercially to control the Two-spotted Mite only on a large scale, as they require ample mites to survive.
Spraying should be carried out as a last resort as many predators are killed during the operation and spraying can have the opposite effect by increasing numbers in the long term. Dimethoate will reduce numbers; however, Two-spotted mites are resistant to insecticides in some areas. Dusting with wettable sulphur may also prove effective.
Always read the label for registration details and direction of use prior to application of any chemicals.
Various Scale Species
Description of the Pest
Generally scales are soft bodied insects that have a hard (armoured) or soft covering to hide under. They have piercing and sucking mouth parts that are attached to the host, feed off sap and soft scales commonly producing sweet honeydew, which in turn attracts sooty mould and ants.
The adult female has a circular or oval covering depending on the species and is up to 8mm across. The first stage (crawlers) hatch and wander around the leaf surface until finding a suitable place to suck sap, normally in colonies and the smaller male is relatively inconspicuous.
Hard Scale Soft Scale, attending Ants
Cactus Scale (Diaspis echinocacti) has a circular greyish female and a narrow white male scale and is commonly found on house plants.
Chain Scales (Pulvinaria species) adult females are obvious with large group of eggs that are white or cottony-like, and the tiny young light green scales are flat and oval-shaped up to 2mm long. The legged nymphs are normally arranged from head to tail along the mid rib of the leaf, and may move to a new position to feed. They excrete honeydew and attract sooty mould and are found on Acacia and Acronychia species.
Chinese Wax Scale
Chinese Wax Scale (Ceroplastes sinensis) is a domed wax scale that has dark spots around its margin and immature scales form waxy material around there margins.
Fern Scale on Aspidistra elatior
Fern Scale or Coconut Scale (Pinnaspis aspidistrae) appears as flecks up to 0.15mm long with a white covering over the male congregating on the underside of the fronds on the axils and among the sporangia causing them to turn yellow. Many species of fern are susceptible to infestation.
Flat Brown Scale
Flat Brown Scale (Eucalymnatus tessellates) are light brown up to 0.5mm long, flat and closely attached both sides of the leaf and causing yellowing of the foliage.
Juniper Scale (Diaspis carueli) is tiny and circular, white maturing to grey-black and as it feeds the needles turn yellow and die.
Oleander Scale (Aspidiotus hederae) is a pale yellow circular scale up to 3mm across and is found in dense colonies on the stem or leaves.
Tea-tree Scale (Eriococcus orariensis) are a creamy blue colour normally packed along the branches and are plump and rounded to 4mm across.
Wattle Tick Scale
Tick or Wattle Scale (Cryptes baccatus) adult is domed, blue-slate colour with a leathery covering up to 10mm long. All stages of growth are found in groups of over forty, packed along the stems and normally tended by ants as they produce large amounts of honeydew. A serious pest of Acacia species found inland or coastal from temperate to sub tropical climates and commonly accompanied by Sooty Mould.
Toxic Scale (Hemiberlesia lataniae) is a tiny flat rounded scale up to 0.15mm long and is white to pale pink. It is normally found in colonies on the small branches and twigs of shrubs. It injects a toxic substance into the host as it sucks sap causing the death of the branch.
Wattle Scale (Pseudococcus albizziae) is soft, plump and secrets cotton-like threads. It is not a true scale insect and is simular to mealy bugs. It is reddish-brown up to 0.4mm long and secrets large amounts of honeydew as it sucks sap in colonies along the branches.
These insects have a Hemimetabolous life cycle, ie. When the immature nymphs resemble the adults.
Appearance of the Pest
All parts of the plant above the soil may be attacked, but normally the stems and leaves and scale tends to favour well-lit positions.
Period of Activity
The nymphs and females are active for most of the year, in warm climates. Once they selected a position they attach and don't move. Normally the winged or wingless males are mobile and only soft scales produce honeydew.
There is a wide range of susceptible plants including citrus, willows, holly, and many ornamentals, such as roses or Paeonia species. It also attacks indoor or glasshouse plants and Australian native plants such as wattles, hakeas, grevilleas and eucalyptus.
Acacia species are attacked by the Tick or Wattle Scale, which infest twigs and small branches and heavy infestations will kill the host plant.
Acer species are attacked by the Cotton Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilia) which prefers Acer saccharinum. Nymphs first attack the leaves and the brown adult scale is covered in a woolly mass up to 14mm across, normally found on the underside of the stems and twigs.
Acmena smithii, Melaleuca, Syzygium and Pittosporum species are attacked by the Chinese Wax Scale.
Aesculus species are attacked by several scale insects including the Walnut Scale (Aspidiotus juglans-regiae) which is saucer-shaped and attacks the main trunks.
Agave species are susceptible to several types of scale including (Aspidiotus nerii), (Aonidiella aurantii) and (Pinnaspis strachani), but generally do not require control.
Asplenium australasicum is susceptible to Coconut Scale or Fern Scale (Pinnaspis aspidistrae). It is normally found on the under side of the fronds. Small infestations cause little damage.
Bougainvillea species may be attacked by the soft scale (Coccus hesperidum) outdoors or under glass.
Calluna and Vaccinium species are attacked by the Oyster Shell Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi).
Camellia species may be attacked by the Florida Red Scale (Chrysomphalus aonidum), which is small, circular and black and is found firmly attached to the underside of the leaf along the veins. On inspection after removing the scale the insect has a pale yellow body. Camellias are also attacked by a large variety of scale insects including Tea Scale and Camellia Scale.
Carpinus species may be attacked by the scale (Phenacoccus acericola). It is found on the underside of the leaves forming a white cotton-like clump along the veins.
Casuarina and Allocasuarina species may be attacked by the Casuarina Scale (Frenchia casuarinae), a black hard scale that is upright to 4mm with a pinkish body. During attachment the surrounding tissue swells up and in time can, form galls. This weakens the wood and in severe infestations may kill the tree.
Cotoneaster species are attacked by up to four species of scale including the Oyster Shell Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi).
Cupressus species are attacked by Bark Scale (Ehrhornia cupressi) is pink and covered in white wax. Heavy infestations cause the leaves to turn yellow or reddish.
Flat Brown Scale on Cycas revoluta
Cycads, palms and some species of Callistemon are attacked by the Flat Brown Scale.
Erica species are attacked by several species of scale including, Greedy, Oleander and Oystershell scale.
Jasminum species can be infested with up to twelve types of scale.
Juniperus x media and other conifer species are attacked by the Juniper Scale.
Leptospermum species are attacked by the Tea-tree Scale which produces ample honey dew that promotes sooty mould.
Palm and Fern species are susceptible to attack by the Coconut Scale or Fern Scale (Pinnaspis aspidistrae) which infests the underside of the leaves. They are also hosts for many other scale species such as red, cottony cushion and tea scale.
Pinus species are attacked by several species of scale including the Pine Tortoise Scale (Toumeyella numismaticum) and the Red Pine Scale (Matsucoccus resinosae).
Sorbus aucuparia is attacked by a five species of scale insect, including Black Cottony Maple, San Jose and Scurfy. Generally they suck on the sap of the new growth and leaves.
Strelitzia species are attacked by the Greedy Scale (Aspidiotus camelliae).
Leaves become yellow and are shed prematurely and there may be twig or stem die-back. When the infestation occurs on fruit, the fruit is small and its skin becomes pitted and cracked. Small trees and saplings that are heavily infested may be seriously damaged or die. Sooty mould can cover fruit or leaves causing a secondary problem.
Cactus Scale can completely cover the host cactus sucking sap and causing it to die.
Dead or damaged parts of the plant should be removed and destroyed including fallen fruit. Small infestations may be removed by hand or squashed on the stems. Healthy plants are less susceptible to attack, so maintain vigour of the plant and avoid using high-nitrogen fertiliser that produces excessive soft young growth.
When pruning susceptible plants paint the cuts with antifungal sealant paint as scale insects are attracted to the sweet smell of the sap. This will reduce the infection rate of the plant.
Natural predators such as parasitic wasps may reduce numbers of active nymphs; parasitic wasps are bred commercially in some areas for this purpose. It should be noted, however, that wasps would avoid dusty conditions.
Other predators that assist in control are assassin bugs, ladybirds, lacewings, hover flies and scale eating caterpillars. A variety of birds also attack scales.
The control of ants that transport aphid from one host to another also reduces infestation and can be carried out by applying at least three greased bandages 5mm apart around the stem or trunk of the plant.
Spray the entire plant with dilute white oil solution; a follow-up spray may be required after four weeks, for heavy infestations. Spraying of chemicals will also kill of natural predators and in some cases the secondary scale infestation is more prolific especially when using copper based chemicals.
Some chemical controls, such as methidathion, are available - please seek advice from your local nursery as to the suitable product for your area.
Always read the label for registration details and direction of use prior to application of any chemicals.
Note: Plants affected by this pest are Deer Resistant plants not the susceptible plants.
Description of the Pest
There are two species of the deer in North America, the Whitetail (Odocoileus virginianus) and the Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with several regional variations such as the Pacific coastal Blacktail (O.h. columbianus) which is regarded as a sub-species of the Mule deer.
The Whitetail on average grows to 112 cm (44in) tall and 180 mm (70 in) long and weigh 68 kgs (150lbs). The fir colour varies according to its environment but generally it is reddish-brown during summer and grey-brown in winter with a pure white underside on its tail. When the tail is erect it is known as the "white flag". Its antlers consist of two main beams from which the points emerge.
The Mule deer grow to 105 cm (42 in) tall and are up to 200 cm (80 in) long with the adult buck weighing up to 137 kgs (300 lbs) and the does up to 80 kgs (175 lbs). The fir is generally tawny brown during summer and during winter it has a heaver grey-brown to blue-grey coat with a small white tail that is tipped in black. The other distinguishing features are its ears that are up to 300 mm (1 ft) long (mule-like) and its antlers, with the two beams that are forked into smaller beams, which inturn fork again and again.
The Blacktail deer (Pacific coastal Blacktail) grows to 97 cm (38 in) tall and is up to 105 cm (60 in) long and weighs on average 73 kgs (160 lbs). The fir is generally tawny brown during summer and during winter it has a heaver grey-brown to blue-grey coat with a tail that is dark brown at the base then changing to black for 50% of its length. The antlers consist of two beams that are forked into smaller beams, which inturn fork again and again.
Appearance and Distribution of the Pest
The Whitetail deer are found throughout eastern United States, on the coast and inland but are not commonly seen in California, Utah or Nevada. They do not migrate but congregate together (yard up) during winter and feed in a part of their existing territory.
The Mule Deer are found in the western part of North America from South eastern Alaska to Mexico and from the Pacific coast to Texas. They migrate from highland mountain meadows to southern or lower snow free forested valleys during winter.
The Blacktail deer are found on the Pacific coast from Alaska to northern California. There is both resident and migratory Blacktails. The migratory Blacktails move southwards during late autumn at the first sigh of snow or heavy sustained rain and the resident Blacktails seek cover their existing territory amongst woodlands during the winter months.
All Deer breed from autumn to early winter and the does give birth from late spring to early summer.
Period of Activity
Deer are most active from spring to autumn but can be troublesome during winter when the feed is scarce. In some regions urban landscapes become the major food source both in summer and winter.
Browsing deer will feed on almost any plant and is most commonly noticeable during spring feeding on the new growth or twigs and stems leaving a shredded appearance. Deer also rub their antlers against trees damaging bark and snapping off small branches, this action also incurs damage under hoof as plants, lawns and garden structures are trampled on.
Some plants are more palatable to deer but when a deer is hungry or during drought conditions there are no "Deer Proof" plants. There is a range of plants that have a bad taste and are not destroyed and are regarded as (deer resistant plants). Deer resistant plants are the plants that are attached to this file not the susceptible plants.
There are many cultural controls that have been tried to move browsing deer such as frightening them with strobe lights, pyrotechnics or tethered savage dogs. These actions are only temporary and may cause more trouble as the stampeding animals move off. Fencing and netting can be an effective method of discouraging hungry deer from gardens but may be expensive on a large scale and require maintenance. There are several types of fences which include conventional 2.2m (8 ft) deer-proof woven wire fences or single-wire electric fences and slanted deer fences. Plant selection can also be effective, by using less desirable plants (deer resistant plants) as an outer border to the more desirable plant species and thus discouraging the deer to enter the garden. Hedges and windrows of less desirable thorny plants can also be a deterrent to browsing deer.
There are two main types of repellents contact and area. Contact repellents are applied directly to the plants and deter deer with a bad taste or smell. They can be applied by rubbing or spraying on to the plants and commonly used in an egg mixture. The commercial products have proven to work better than home remedies which include soap or chilli mixtures and hanging bags of human hair.
Area repellents rely on an offensive odour and are placed around areas that are frequently visited.
Contact your local distributor for available types and application.
Average Lowest Temperature : -1º C 30º F
USDA : 9-12
This USDA hardiness zone chart can be used to to indicate a plant’s ability to withstand average minimum temperatures. However, other factors such as soil type, moisture, drainage, humidity and exposure to sun and wind will also have a direct effect on your plant’s survival. Use this chart only as a guide, always keep the other factors in mind when deciding where, when and what to plant.
Plant's individual USDA zone can be found in the Plant Overview...
Warm to Sub-tropical
This overlaping zone has ample rain with high summer temeperatures and high humidity. Winters are mild. Pockets of sub-tropical climates exist within coastal warm temperate zones.
Frosts and droughts rarely occur along the coast.
Tropical and warm temperate native and exotic plants grow well.
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